ROBERT DE NIRO, SR (1922-1993) 

1922
Born in Syracuse, NY

1933–37
Attends art classes at the Syracuse Museum, is provided with a room at the museum to work independently

1938
At age sixteen, spends summer at Ralph Pearson’s art school in Gloucester, MA

1939
Spends summer studying with Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, MA

1939–40
Attends Black Mountain College, studies with Josef Albers

1941
Moves to New York City. Attends Hofmann’s school in New York. Meets Virginia Admiral. 
Spends summer in Provincetown at the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts.

1942  
Continues studies at the Hofmann School. Marries Virginia Admiral. They spend summer in Provincetown studying at the Hofmann School.

1943  
Works at the Museum of Non-Objective Painting (later called the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum). 
Son Robert is born.

1945  
Included in his first exhibition in the Fall Salon at Peggy Guggenheim’s Art of This Century Gallery, New York, NY

1946  
Has first one-man exhibition in May at Peggy Guggenheim’s Art of This Century Gallery, New York, NY

1950  
Robert DeNiro, Charles Egan Gallery, New York, NY

1951  
Robert De Niro, Charles Egan Gallery, New York, NY
Included in The Ninth Street Show, 60 East 9th Street, New York, NY

1952  
Museum Purchase Fund acquires his first large Crucifixion painting
Robert De Niro, Charles Egan Gallery, New York, NY

1953  
Robert De Niro, Charles Egan Gallery, New York, NY

1954  
Robert De Niro, Charles Egan Gallery, New York, NY

1955  
Robert De Niro, Poindexter Gallery, New York, NY
Robert De Niro, Charles Egan Gallery, New York, NY

1956  
Robert De Niro, Poindexter Gallery, New York, NY
Included in the Whitney Museum of American Art Annual, New York, NY
Included in Stable Gallery Annual, New York, NY

1957  
Included in Artists of the New York School, Second Generation, The Jewish Museum, New York, NY

1958  
Wins the Longview Foundation Purchase Award
Robert De Niro: Paintings and Drawings, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY

1959  
Included in 100 Works on Paper: Part 1, United States, The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, MA

1960  
Robert De Niro: Charcoal Drawings and Watercolors, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
Robert De Niro, Recent Paintings, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Seventieth Annual Exhibition, Nebraska Art Association, Lincoln, NE
Recipient of Fifth International Hallmark Art Award Included in The Question of the Future: Fifth International Hallmark Art Award, Wildenstein Gallery, New York, NY

1960–61  
Included in The Figure in Contemporary American Painting, American Federation of Arts, New York, NY (traveling exhibition) 

1961  
Moves to France. Lives in Paris, Gravigny, Baren, and Saint-Just-en- Chevalet between 1961 and 1964. Art collector and patron Joseph Hirshhorn acquires several oil paintings and works on paper.
Robert De Niro: Drawings, Smolin Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Rocky Mountain Region Artist’s Equity Association Exhibition, Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Annual, CO
Included in 7th Annual Drawing and Small Sculpture Show, Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, IN

1962  
Included in Portraits, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Merwin & Wakeley Galleries Annual, Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington  
Included in Figures, Kornblee Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Recent Painting U.S.A.: Figure, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY                         
Robert De Niro: Sculpture and Drawings, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY

1963  
Robert De Niro: New Paintings from Paris and the Pyrenees, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Five American Paintings, Knoedler Gallery, New York, NY
Robert De Niro, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
     
1965  
Robert De Niro: Garbo Series, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Portraits from the American Art World, New School Art Center, New York, NY

1966  
Returns from France.
Included in American Flowers of the 1960s, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY

1967  
Robert De Niro: Sculpture and Drawings, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
Robert De Niro, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY

1967–75
Teaches summer sessions at State University of New York, Buffalo. Also teaches in New York City at Cooper Union, the New School for Social Research, the School of Visual Arts, the New York School of Drawing, Painting and Sculpture, and the Michigan State University in East Lansing, MI. 

1968  
Awarded Guggenheim Fellowship
Robert De Niro: Bronze Figure Sculpture, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY
Robert De Niro, Seventeen Paintings, Ten Sculptures, Ten Drawings, Reese Palley Gallery, Atlantic City, NJ and San Francisco, CA

1969  
Included in Varieties of Figurative Art, Bard College, Annandale-on- Hudson, NY
Included in Homage to Matisse, Grace Borgenicht Gallery, New York, NY

1970  
Robert De Niro: Paintings, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY

1971  
Robert De Niro, Brenner Gallery, Provincetown, MA
Included in A New Consciousness, The CIBA-GEIGY Collection, Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, NY
Included in Inaugural Exhibition: Recent Paintings and Sculpture by Gallery Artists, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, NY

1973  
Robert De Niro, Zoller Gallery, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
     
1974  
Lithographs, Kansas City Art Institute, MO

1975
Included in group exhibition at Reese Palley Gallery, Atlantic City, NJ and San Francisco, CA      

1976
Robert De Niro, Poindexter Gallery, New York, NY
Included in group exhibition at Becker Galleries, New York, NY

1977  
Included in The Art of Pastel, James Graham & Sons Gallery, New York, NY

1978  
Paintings and Drawings, Charles Campbell Gallery, San Francisco, CA
Robert De Niro, David Stuart Gallery, Los Angeles, CA
Works on Paper, Arts Gallery, Baltimore, MD
Works on Paper, William Grappo Gallery, Swain School of Design, New Bedford, MA
Included in The New Landscape, Bell Gallery, Brown University, Providence, RI
Included in Days Lumberyard Studios: Provincetown 1914–1971, Provincetown Art Association and Museum, MA

1979  
Paintings of Bernal Heights, Charles Campbell Gallery, San Francisco, CA
Robert De Niro, James Graham & Sons Gallery, New York, NY 1980
Robert De Niro, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY
Robert De Niro, James Graham & Sons Gallery, New York, NY

1981
Drawings by Robert De Niro, Foster/WhiteGallery, Seattle, WA
Robert De Niro: Recent Paintings and Drawings, Mint Museum, Charlotte, NC (traveled to Asheville Art Museum, NC) 
Included in An American Choice: The Muriel Kallis Steinberg Newman Collection, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY

1982
Robert De Niro, James Graham & Sons Gallery, New York, NY
Included in The 46th Annual National Midyear Show, The Butler
Institute of American Art, Youngstown, OH

1983
Robert De Niro, David Hamilton Gallery, Charleston, SC 1984
Robert De Niro, Graham Modern Gallery, New York, NY
Included in 20th Century American Drawings: The Figure in Context, The Terra Museum of American Art; organized by The International Exhibition Foundation, Washington, DC (traveling exhibition) 
Included in Emotional Impact: New York School Figurative Expressionism, circulated by the Art Museum Association of America, San Francisco, CA (traveling exhibition) 
Included in Women: A Changing Picture, James Graham & Sons Gallery, New York, NY

1985  
Included in Selections from the New York Collection 1985–1986, The Members Gallery, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Included in Summer Yellows, Graham Modern Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Annual Exhibition, National Academy of Design, New York, NY
Included in Survival of the Fittest I, Ingber Gallery, New York, NY

1986  
Robert De Niro, Contemporary Arts Center, Great Falls, MT
Robert De Niro, Crane Kalman Gallery, London, England
Robert De Niro, Graham Modern Gallery, New York, NY
Included in Form or Formula, Drawing and Drawings, The Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, NY Robert De Niro: Expression as Tradition— Modern Classicism Redefined, Paris Gibson Center for Contemporary Art, Great Falls, MT (traveling exhibition)

1987  
Included in Vision and Tradition, The Morris Museum, Morristown, NJ and Colby College Museum, Waterville, ME

1990  
Included in The Provocative Years 1935–1945: The Hans Hofmann School and Its Students in Provincetown, Provincetown Art Association and Museum, MA

1991  
Receives Honorary Degree at Briarwood College, Southington, CT

1992  
Included in Color As Subject, The Artists’ Museum in association with Tibor de Nagy Gallery and Staempfli Gallery, The Police Building, New York, NY

1993  
Dies in New York, May 3rd
Included in Monumental Nudes, Salander-O’Reilly Galleries, New York, NY

2014
HBO Documentary Film presentation, “Remembering the Artist: Robert De Niro, Sr.,” directed by Perri Peltz and Geeta Gandhbir, produced by Perri Peltz, executive producers Sheila Nevins and Jane Rosenthal. Premiere at Sundance Film Festival, January and on HBO, June
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Paintings & Drawings 1948–1989, DC Moore Gallery, New York, NY


SELECTED PUBLIC COLLECTIONS

Ackland Art Museum, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Arizona State University Art Museum, Tempe, AZ Arkansas Arts Center, Little Rock, AR
The Baltimore Museum of Art, MD
The William Benton Museum of Art, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin, TX
Brooklyn Museum, NY
Richard F. Brush Art Gallery at St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY
The Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, OH
Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento, CA
Denver Art Museum, CO
Everson Museum of Art, Syracuse, NY
Heckscher Museum of Art, Huntington, NY
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC
Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY
Kresge Art Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY
Mint Museum, Charlotte, NC
Montana Historical Society & Museum, Helena, MT
National Academy Museum, New York, NY
Neuberger Museum of Art, Purchase College, State University of New York, NY
Oakland Museum of California, CA
Parrish Art Museum, Water Mill, NY
Provincetown Art Association and Museum, MA
Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence, RI
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC
University Museum of Contemporary Art, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
University Art Collections, Tempe, AZ Weatherspoon Art Museum, Greensboro, NY Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT Yellowstone Art Museum, Billings, MT

SELECTED BOOKS AND CATALOGUES

1969
Robert De Niro: Seventeen Paintings, Ten Sculptures, Ten Drawings. San Francisco, CA: Reese Palley Gallery. 

1972
Van Deren, Coke. The Painter and the Photograph, From Delacroix to Warhol. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press. 

1975
Painterly Representation. New York, NY: Ingber Gallery.

1981
Robert De Niro, Recent Paintings and Drawings. Charlotte, NC: The Mint Museum of Art. 
Robert De Niro: Drawings. Seattle, WA: Foster/White Gallery.

1984–86
Emotional Impact: New York School Figurative Expressionism. San Francisco, CA: Art Museum Association of America. 

1986  
Paintings and Works on Paper: Robert De Niro. London, England: Crane Kalman Gallery.
Robert De Niro: Recent Paintings and Works on Paper. New York, NY: Graham Modern Gallery. Robert De Niro: Expression as Tradition—Modern Classicism Redefined. Great Falls, MT: Paris Gibson Square Museum of Art.

1987  
Vision and Tradition. Morristown, NJ: The Morris Museum and the Colby College Museum, Waterville, ME.

1990
The Provocative Years 1935–1945: The Hans Hofmann School and Its Students in Provincetown. Provincetown, MA: Provincetown Art Association & Museum. 

1995  
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Paintings. New York, NY: Salander-O’Reilly Galleries.

1996  
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Drawings. New York, NY: Salander-O’Reilly Galleries.
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Charcoals, 1958–1981. New York, NY: Salander- O’Reilly Galleries.

1997  
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Paintings. New York, NY: Salander-O’Reilly Galleries.

1998  
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Selected Works. San Francisco, CA: Hackett- Freedman Gallery.

2000
Robert De Niro, Sr. San Francisco, CA: Hackett-Freedman Gallery.  
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Landscapes. New York, NY: Salander-O’Reilly Galleries. 

2004
Robert De Niro, Sr. New York, NY: Salander-O’Reilly Galleries. 

2007  
Robert De Niro, Sr. Venice, Italy: San Marco Casa D’Aste.

2008  
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Summer Landscapes. New York, NY: Ameringer & Yohe Fine Art, 2008.

2012
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Paintings & Drawings, 1963–1993. New York, NY: DC Moore Gallery. 

2014
Robert De Niro, Sr.: Paintings & Drawings, 1948–1989. New York, NY: DC Moore Gallery. 
Robert De Niro, Sr. and Robert De Niro, Jr., c. 1945. 

TEXTS AND POEMS BY ROBERT DE NIRO, SR

1975
“Corot, Verlaine and Greta Garbo or the Melancholy Syndrome,” Tracks, a Journal of Artistic Writings, vol. I, no. 3 (Fall), pp. 48–49. 

1976
A Fashionable Watering Place: Poems and Drawings by Robert De Niro, San Francisco. 

1977
“Artists on Degas,” Art/World, vol. I, no. 7, March, p. 11. 

1980
“Boucher Reassessed,” Art/World, vol. V, no. 3, November, pp. 1, 4. 

1981
“The Quiet Heart of Bonnard’s Art: Nonflamboyant Joy, Dedication,” Art/World, vol. VI, no. 3, November, pp. 1, 8. 

1982
“Munch’s Morbidity,” Art/World, vol. VII, no. 3, December, pp.1, 10.

1983
“De Niro on Manet,” Art/World, vol. VIII, no. 2, November, pp.1, 8.

1984
“Robert De Niro on Soutine,” Art/World, vol. VIII, no. 4, January, pp. 1, 5, 7. 

1984–85
“Two Artists View Van Gogh,” Art/World, vol. IX, no. 3, pp. 1, 9.

1985
“Rousseau’s Romanticism,” Art/World, vol. IX, no. 8, p. 8.

1991
“BrooklynHeights,” California State Poetry Quarterly 17, no.2&3,p.19. 
“Spain is Behind the Mountain,” California State Poetry Quarterly 18, no. 1 & 2, p. 45. 

REVIEWS

1945
Wolf, Ben. “Emotional Hangover,” Art Digest 20, October.

1946
Greenberg, Clement. “Review of Exhibitions of Max Beckmann and Robert De Niro,” The Nation, May 18.
“Reviews and Previews: Abstract Painting,” ARTnews 45, May. 

1951
Hess, Thomas B. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 49, February.
Krasne, Belle. “Fifty-Seventh Street in Review: Robert De Niro,” Art Digest 25, February.

1953
Ashton, Dore. “Galleries: ‘52–‘53 Flashback: Robert De Niro,” Art Digest 27, June. 
McBride, Henry. “Younger Hero,” ARTnews 52, June.

1955
Hess, Thomas B. “U.S. Painting: Some Recent Directions,” ARTnews Annual 25, December.
O’Hara, Frank. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 54, March. 
Sawin, Martica. “Fortnight in Review: Robert De Niro,” Art Digest 29, March. 

1956
Finkelstein,Louis. “New Look: Abstract-Impressionism,” ARTnews55, March. 
Mellow, James R. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 30, June. “Up From the Frenzy,” Newsweek 48, July 9.
Tyler, Parker. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 55, June. 

1957
Sawin, Martica.“Robert De Niro,” Arts 31, March.

1958
Munro, Eleanor C. “De Niro Works on a Series of Pictures,” ARTnews 57, May.
Schuyler, James. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 57, November. Ventura, Anita. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 33, November.
Vicente, Esteban. “Gris: Reality Cubed,” Yarnall, May. 

1959
“Galleries Cross-Country: Fort Worth, Tex.” ARTnews 58, October.

1960
Burkhardt, Edith.“Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 59, Summer. 
Campbell, Lawrence. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 59, October.
Sawin, Martica. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 35, November.
Tillim, Sidney. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 34, May. 

1961
Fussinger, H. College Art Journal, Spring. Petersen, Valerie. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 60, May. Smith, Lawrence. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 35, May. 

1962
Petersen, Valerie. “RobertDeNiro,” ARTnews 61, December. 1963 Campbell,Lawrence.“FiveAmericansFaceReality,” ARTnews 62, September.
Gruen, John. “Loners’ With High Standards,” The New York Herald Tribune, September 22.
Preston, Stuart. “A Tour of Variety Fair,” The New York Times, September 22.
Sawin, Martica. “Good Painting – No Label,” Arts 37, September. 

1965
Benedikt, Michael. “New York Letter,” Art International 9 , no.9–10. 
Berrigan, Ted. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 64, October. 
Goldin, Amy. “De Niro,” Arts 40, November. 
Hess, Thomas B. “Private Faces in Public Places,” ARTnews 63, February. 
“Robert De Niro,” Arts 39, February. 

1967  
Hooten,BruceDuff.“Robert De Niro,” ARTnews65, January.

1968
Campbell, Lawrence. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 67, Summer.
Frackman, Noel. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 42, Summer.

1970  
Edgar, Natalie. “Robert De Niro,” ARTnews 69, April.
Magarowicz, J. “De Niro at Zabriskie,” Arts 44, April.

1971  
DeNiro, Robert. ArtNow: New York, statement and color plate.

1976  
Hess, Thomas B. “Warhol and De Niro, Honesty is the Best Policy,” New York, December 6.
Tallmer, Jerry. “Robert De Niro the Painter,” New York Post, December 4.

1977
Adams, Sam. “The Painter’s Painter,” Flightime, January.
Herrera, Hayden. “Robert De Niro at Poindexter,” Art in America, May/June.
Rosenthal, Deborah. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 51, February.

1978  
Politeo, Lisa. “Painting Hurt by Commercialization,” The Daily Californian, August 4.
Rohrer, Judith. “Robert De Niro’s Figures and Landscapes,” Art Week, April 29.
Workman, Andrea. “Robert De Niro: New York Painter with Bay Area Sensibility,” West Art, April.

1979  
Dickman, Sharon.“Painter Robert De Niro Pierces Space with Color, Real Images,” The Evening Sun Accent, April 18.
Edgar, Natalie. “Robert De Niro Paintings,” Art/World, May 18/ June 18.

1980  
Ashbery, John. “Looking Good on Paper,” New York, June 30.
French-Frazier, Nina. “A New York Letter: Robert De Niro,” Art International 24, no. 1–2, September/October.
Hale, Nick. “Battle Between Realism and Abstraction Stilled,” Art/World 4, no. 10, Summer.
Raynor, Vivien. “Robert De Niro,” The New York Times, June 27.

1982
Mathew, Ray. “DeNiro’s Promise,” Art/World 6, no.6, February22/March 22.
Raynor, Vivien. “Robert De Niro,” The New York Times, February 26. 
Sawin, Martica. “Robert De Niro: A Fragrance of Place,” Arts 56, March. 
Smith, Roberta. “Misplaced Attention,” The Village Voice, March 2. 

1984
Campbell, Lawrence. “Robert De Niro at Graham Modern,” Art in America, September. 
Jay, Eric. “Robert De Niro, Graham Modern,” ARTnews 83, Summer.
Mathew, Ray. “Robert De Niro,” Arts 58, May. 
Ruhe, Barnaby. “De Niro’s Authenticity Sudden Confrontation,” Art/World 8, no. 6, March/April. 

1985  
Batt, John. Art New England, Art Center at Hargate, St. Paul’s School Exhibition. Brenson, Michael. “Annual Exhibition at National Academy of Design,” The New York Times, February 15.

1986  
Hughes, Graham. “Robert De Niro and Paul Resika at Crane Kalman,” Arts Review, March.
Langer, Sandra. “Harmonious Imagination: Paintings by Robert De Niro,” Arts 60, May.
Matlock, David. “De Niro’s Paintings,” Art/World, vol. 10, no. 6.
Mullaly, Terrance. “Americans Out of the Mold: De Niro and Resika,” The Daily Telegraph, April 2.

1988
Silver, Joanne. “De Niro Showing Sizzles with Color,” The Boston Herald, July 1.

1992
Zimmer, William. “Memorabilia and Painting From Black Mountain’s Glory Days,” The New York Times, April 19.

1995
Arts and Leisure Guide, “Robert De Niro, Sr.,” The New York Times  (Arts and Leisure Guide), January 1.
Campbell, Lawrence. "Robert De Niro, Sr., at Salander-O’Reilly,” Art in America, July.
Karmel, Pepe. “Robert De Niro, Sr.,” The New York Times, January 20.
Schjeldahl, Peter. “Fruit and Turpentine,” The Village Voice, January 31. 

1997
“Robert De Niro at Salander-O’Reilly,” The New Yorker, February 10. 

1998
 Bonetti, David. “De Niro Sr.’s Work at Hackett Freedman,” San Francisco Examiner, October 12. Jacobsen, Kay Marie. “Art: De Niro, the Painter,” San Francisco Chronicle Online, November 8–14.

1999  
Dickey, Christopher. “The Second Time Around,” Newsweek, May 31.
Kimmelman, Michael. “Art Club: Twenty Years of Superstars and Shooting Stars,” The New York Times Magazine, October 24.
“Periscope: De Niro’s Dad,” Newsweek, May 17.
 
2000  
Bonetti, David. “De Niro’s Wonderful Way in Color,” San Francisco Examiner, October.
Naves, Mario. “The Loaded Brush of Robert De Niro, Sr.,” The New York Observer, January 24.

2002
Chacón, Francisco. “Robert De Niro ‘beautiza’ en Madrid la pintura de su padre,” El Mundo, Madrid, April 7.
Fernandez, Victor. “Robert De Niro visita la capital para presentar la pintura de su padre,” La Razon, Madrid, April 7. 
Mora, Miguel. “De Niro hijo presenta a De Niro padre,” El Pais, Madrid, April 7. 
Sobisch, Pablo. “Robert De Niro, el pintor,” Guía del Ocio, Madrid, April 19. 
Úrcolo, Eduardo. “El otro Robert De Niro,” Tribuna, Madrid, April 8.

2003
Cohen, David. “Gallery-Going,” The New York Sun, August 14. 2005
Cohen, David. “Student and Master,” The New York Sun, January. 
Kramer, Hilton. “Paint Brushes Full, Robert De Niro, Sr. Really Thought Big,” New York Observer, March 7. 
Panero, James. “Gallery Chronicle,” The New Criterion, vol. 23, no. 6. 2007
Panero, James. “Mystical Mediator: Re-examining the Legacy of Robert De Niro, Sr.,” Art & Antiques, September. 

2009

Turner, Christopher. “An Elegant Mind,” Modern Painter, Summer. 

2010
Goodman, Lanie. “Art by De Niro, Sr., After Seeing Matisse,” WSJ.com, March 26. 

2011
Darida, Ioan and Dana Postolache, “A ‘Master’ of His Time, ”Arcolmag
Landi, Ann. “De Niro Jr. on De Niro Sr.,” ARTnews 110, January. 

2012
“DC Moore opens first exhibition as the exclusive representative of the Estate of Robert De Niro, Sr.,” ArtDaily.org, March 27. 
Rosboch, Lili. “Dale Earnhardt Jr. Jr., De Niro, Political Giraffe: NYC Weekend.” Bloomberg.com, March 30. 
Smith, Roberta. “Robert De Niro Sr.: Paintings and Drawings, 1960–1993,” The New York Times, April 19. 
“Museum and Gallery Listings,” The New York Times, April 27. 
Stoodley, Sheila Gibson. “Artist Robert De Niro Sr.’s Art on Display in New York.” RobbReport.com, March 26.